Waste and by-products

Our goal is to make use of all production side streams so that no landfill waste will be generated in our processes after 2030.

Our production side streams consist of by-products and process waste. By-products include, for example, the most nutrient-rich ash that is sold for fertilising, and lime fractions that can be burnt to calcium oxide and used in other industries.

In addition to by-products and process waste, our operations generate other non-hazardous waste, such as municipal waste and construction waste, and some hazardous waste.

  • 17%


  • 80%

    Process waste

  • 3%

    Other non-hazardous waste

  • <1%

    Hazardous waste

99% of the process waste is utilised for material use and for energy generation. Only 1% is delivered to landfill.


A strategic R&D programme for converting side streams for use in the circular economy is underway at Metsä Group. Metsä Group is researching and developing, both independently and with partners, various new purposes for sludge, ashes, lignin, sawdust, bark and many other forest industry side streams. It is also exploring opportunities for carbon recovery and upgrading.