Key principles of regenerative forestry
The forest economy produces naturally occurring tree species
Spruce, pine, silver birch, white birch and aspen, which spread to Finland after the ice age, are grown as industrial trees.
In their natural habitats and areas of distribution, trees live in interaction with other species. Each tree species has a significant amount of other species that are either directly or indirectly dependent on it. As the tree ages, the species that are dependent on individual trees change.
Using naturally occurring tree species in the forest industry sets a high baseline for the presence of species that would naturally occur in the area.
Target species: Associated species of spruce, pine, birch and aspen: decay organisms of wood forest litter, species living on tree trunks, species that feed on tree leaves, root fungi and other associated fungi species.
Increasing the diversity of tree species in forests
Aiming for mixed forests with multiple tree species promotes the diversity of tree species in forests. Mixed cultivation of spruce and pine and increasing the share of birch in coniferous forests are among our actions and goals for suitable forest types.
The approximately 25 tree species that do not belong to our most common tree species are completely excluded from our wood purchasing. This includes aspen with a diameter breast height of more than 40 centimetres. Tree species completely excluded from all commercial use include great sallow, grey alder, black alder, bird cherry, rowan and deciduous trees.
Target species: Associated species specialising in tree species. Birds, mammals and other species that favour mixed forests.
Increasing the number of old trees
Trees that are older than their normal regeneration age are considered old trees. They will not be harvested, and the number of old trees in a forest will naturally increase over time through retention trees. Since they have mainly been in commercial use in the past, there will also be more old trees in valuable habitats, littoral forests and protected sites. Increasing the number of old trees applies to all tree species. Old trees will eventually provide decaying wood to the forest.
Target species: Species occurring in old living trees, species living in the decaying parts of living trees.
Increasing the diversity and amount of decaying wood
Different species are dependent on different types of decaying wood. The decaying wood assets of commercial forests include sawn stumps, crown wood (logging residue), natural decaying wood of a low diameter, the decaying parts of living trees and various types of decaying trunk wood.
The amount of decaying trunk wood is being increased through various measures. Sawn stumps will not be used as energy wood. The energy use of crown wood will include leaving some of the logging residue in the forest.
On the broader landscape perspective, the goal is to increase the diversity of decaying wood, achieve a natural diversity of decaying wood types, and create concentrations of decaying wood. Protection sites excluded from forest management have mainly been in commercial use in the past. The goal for these sites is to increase the amount of natural decaying wood over time.
Target species: Species dependent on various types of trees and decaying wood, and their associated species.
Increasing the structural diversity of forest stands
The structural characteristics of forest stands include the stratification and density variations of trees. Retention trees, both individually and in groups, as well as protective thickets will increase the structural diversity of forests. The diversification of forest management methods and continuous cover management methods increase the diversity of forest structures and microclimate conditions at the stand level, increasing the combinations of characteristics required by various species.
Target species: The diversity of forests’ structural characteristics benefits birds, mammals and other species in the habitat, species found in sheltered places and species that benefit from microclimate variations, and different resource combinations in their habitat.