1. Native tree species. Spruce, pine, silver birch, downy birch and aspen – all species that spread to Finland after the last Ice Age – are grown as industrial trees. They provide a habitat for various species living in the area naturally.
  2. Preference for mixed forests. The share of birch is increased in coniferous forests, and spruce and pine are grown in the same forest. Rarer species such as great sallow, grey alder, black alder, rowan and deciduous trees are excluded from commercial use.
  3. Retain old trees. As old trees provide a habitat for many important species, so they are left in the forest and more can be obtained by leaving living retention trees. Over time, old trees become decaying wood.
  4. Add decaying wood. In commercial forests, decaying wood is created by stumps, high biodiversity stumps, logging residue, dead parts of living trees and fallen trunks. Decaying wood provides a habitat for many threatened species.
  5. Variety in the forest. To add structural variety to the forest, retention trees and protective thickets are left in the forest. A variety of forest management methods is used, and continuous cover forestry is increasingly employed.
  6. Forests of different ages. It is important that our country has an even distribution of forests of all ages. Some species thrive in open spots and seedling stands, while others prefer thinning forests, mature forests or old-growth forests.
  7. Protect biotopes. Valuable habitats, or key biotopes, are left untouched or managed on the terms of species living there. Examples of such habitats include sites with flowing water or springs, stony ground or rock, and forests below cliffs.
  8. Protect shores. Protective thickets, the width of which depends on the site, are left along shorelines. There are various kinds of littoral trees and species. Black alder is a typical tree found on shores.
  9. Focus on the bog environment. In peatlands, measures are taken to ensure that water resources remain balanced. No new ditches are made. Continuous cover forestry is used on suitable sites.
  10. Native species in herb-rich forests. Herb-rich forests are home to species not found elsewhere. This is why nature management is the favoured approach in them. The management and protection programme defines the goals and measures for safeguarding the vitality of species typical of herb-rich forests.
  11. Great detail in ridge areas. Dry and sunlit ridge areas are home to their own species. On these sites, forest management is planned in great detail.
  12. Forests for species dependent on burned forest areas. After forest fires, charred wood and burned forest litter attract specialised species to the area. Such sites can be created artificially by burning trees in controlled conditions.
  13. Special plans for special species. If required, a special project to safeguard the habitat of a specific species can be established.
  14. Securing the protection network. To ensure good habitats for species, a sufficiently close network of protected areas must be secured, and the requirements of the species must be taken into account in commercial forests outside the network. In addition to making plans for individual forest stands, plans are drawn up at the area level to ensure species can move to new areas.